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German verbs

German Verbs
Alphabetical List
Part 1 (A-K) | Part 2 (L-Z)

A-D

E-G

H-K

A

achten to pay attention to, respect
an|erkennen S to recognize, acknowledge
an|fangen C/S to begin
See Verb prefixes (an-, aus- )
angeln to fish, angle
an|kommen S to arrive
ändern to change, alter
an|greifen S to attack
an|haben S to have on, wear
an|nehmen S to accept; assume
an|rufen S to call up (tel)
antworten D to answer
s. an|ziehen S to get dressed
arbeiten to work
ärgern to annoy, irritate
atmen to breathe
auf|fallen S to stand out, attract attention
aus|kommen S to come out, have enough of, make do, get along with
aus|machen – 10 meanings!
aus|stellen to exhibit
s. aus|ziehen to undress

B

backen S to bake
baden to bathe, swim
bauen to build
beben to quake, tremble
bedeuten to mean
s. bedienen to serve oneself
befehlen S to command
s. befinden S to be, find oneself
befreien to set free
begegnen D to meet
beginnen S to begin
begleiten to accompany
behalten S to keep
beissen S to bite
bekommen S to get, receive
beleben to enliven, cheer
beleidigen to insult
bellen to bark
belohnen to reward
bergen S to recover, salvage
berichten to report
bersten S to burst
besitzen S to own
bestellen to order
besuchen to visit
beten to pray
betrügen S to deceive, cheat
bewegen to move
bezahlen to pay
biegen S to bend
bieten to offer, bid
binden S to tie
bitten S to request, ask for
blasen C/S to blow
bleiben S to stay
blicken to look, glance
blitzen to flash
blühen to bloom
bluten to bleed
braten C/S to fry, roast
brauchen to need
brauen to brew
brausen to shower; roar
brechen C/S to break
brennen S to burn
bringen S to bring
brüllen to roar, shout
bürsten to brush

D

darf See dürfen
dämmen to dam, check, curb
dämmern to dawn, fall (dusk); doze
dampfen to steam
dämpfen to muffle, damp
danken D to thank
dar|stellen to show, portray
dämmen to dam, check, curb
dauern to last, endure
decken to cover, set (table)
dehnen to stretch
demonstrieren to demonstrate
denken S to think
deuten to point, indicate
dichten to caulk; write poetry
dienen to serve
dringen S to urge, pierce
drucken to print
drücken to push, press; oppress
ducken to stoop, duck; humble
dürfen to be permitted, allow
dürsten to thirst, be thirsty

E

ehren to honor
ein|atmen to breathe in
ein|bauen to install, put in
s. ein|bilden to imagine, get the idea
empfangen C/S to receive
empfehlen C/S to recommend
empfinden to feel, sense
entbehren to do without; lack, miss
See Verb prefixes (emp-, ent- )
entdecken to discover
entfernen to remove
entführen to abduct, kidnap
entgegenen to reply, retort
enthalten C/S to contain
entkommen to escape, get away
entschuldigen to excuse, apologize
erfinden to invent
erhalten C/S to obtain, receive, preserve
s. erinnern to remember
s. erkälten to catch a cold
erklären to explain, declare
erlöschen to be extinguished, dim
errichten to erect, establish
erschöpfen to exhaust, drain
erschrecken S to be frightened
ersticken to choke, smother
erwägen to consider, ponder
erwähnen to mention
erzählen to tell, recount, relate
essen S to eat

German Verb Conjugator

F

fahren S to travel, drive
fallen S to fall
fällen to cut down
falten to fold
fangen S to catch, capture
fassen to grasp, seize, conceive
fechten to fence, fight
feststellen to ascertain, establish
finden S to find
flicken to patch, repair
fliegen S to fly
fliehen S to flee, avoid
fließen S to flow, run
fluchen to curse, swear
fluten to flood, overflow
folgen D to follow
fragen to ask
fressen C/S to eat, feed, devour
s. freuen to be glad, rejoice
frieren S to freeze, feel cold
frühstücken to eat breakfast
fühlen to feel, perceive
führen to lead
füllen to fill
fürchten to fear

G

gähnen to yawn
gären to ferment
gebären to give birth to
geben C/S to give
gebrauchen to use
gedeihen S to thrive, prosper
gefallen C/S to be pleasing, like
gehen S to go
gelingen S to succeed
gelten S to be valid
genesen to recover, convalesce
s. genieren to feel embarrassed/awkward
genießen S to enjoy
geraten to get into, fall into
geschehen C/S to happen
gewinnen S to win, gain
s. gewöhnen to get used to, accustomed to
gießen S to pour, cast
glänzen to glitter, shine
glauben to believe
gleichen S to be like, resemble
gleiten to glide
glotzen to gape, stare
glühen to glow
graben S to dig
greifen S to grasp, grab, seize
grollen to be angry, grumble
grüßen to greet
gucken to look, peep

H

haben S to have
halten C/S to hold, stop, keep
hämmern to hammer, pound
handeln to act, trade, deal
hängen to hang
hassen to hate
hauen to hit, hew
heben S to lift, raise
heiraten to marry
heißen S to be named
heilen to heal
heizen to heat
helfen C/S to help
heraus|bekommen S to get out; find out, figure out
heraus|fordern to challenge
hetzen to rush about, incite
heulen to howl, bawl
hindern to hamper, impede
hoffen to hope
hören to hear
hüpfen to hop, jump
husten to cough

I

identifizieren to identify
immatrikulieren to register (univ)
impfen to vaccinate, inoculate
imponieren to impress, make an impression
importieren to import
informieren to inform
s. interessieren to be interested (in)
irren to wander, stray; be mistaken
irritieren to confuse; irritate
isolieren to insulate; isolate

J

jagen to hunt; chase, drive
jammern to wail, moan, yammer
jauchzen to rejoice, cheer
jaulen to howl
jobben to work, have a job
jodeln to yodel
joggen to jog
jucken to itch
justieren to adjust, justify (type

K

kämmen to comb
kämpfen to fight, struggle
kauen to chew
kaufen to buy
kehren to turn; sweep
kennen S to know, be familiar with
kennenlernen to get to know, become acquainted with
klagen to lament, complain
kleben to paste, stick
klingen S to ring, sound
klopfen to knock, beat
kneifen S to pinch, squeeze, crimp
knüpfen to tie, knot, fasten
kochen to cook, boil, seethe
kommen S to come
können M to be able, can
kosten to cost
kotzen to vomit, puke
krächzen to caw, croak
kratzen to scratch, scrape, claw
kriechen S to crawl, creep
kriegen to get, obtain
kühlen to cool, refresh
kürzen to shorten, abbreviate

NEXT >
German Verbs 2 (L-Z)

 

Related Verb Pages

German Verb Conjugator
Ablaut Classes (strong verbs)
Modal Verbs
Regular Ger. Verbs
Strong (Irregular)
German Verbs
Top 20 Ger. Verbs
Top 50 Ger. Words
Verb Prefixes

 

German Verbs
Alphabetical List
Part 1 (A-K) | Part 2 (L-Z)
L-R S-T U-Z
L

lächeln to smile
lachen to laugh
laden C / S to load
lassen C / S to let, leave, allow
laufen C / S to run, walk
lauschen to eavesdrop, listen
leben to live
lecken to lick; leak
legen to lay, put, place
See liegen
lehren to teach
leiden S to suffer
leihen S to lend, borrow, hire
lernen to learn, study
lesen C / S to read
leuchten to light up, shine, gleam
lichten to thin out, lighten
lieben to love
liegen S to lie, recline, be situated
loben to praise
locken to lure, attract, entice
lohnen to reward, recompense
s. lohnen to be worth (doing)
lösen to solve, dissolve; loosen
lügen to lie (not tell the truth)
lutschen to suck (on)

M

machen to make, do
mahlen to mill, grind
malen to paint, draw
managen to manage
meiden S to avoid, shun
meinen to mean, be of the opinion, think
merken to notice, mark, perceive
messen C / S to measure
mieten to rent, hire
mögen M to like (to)
müssen M to have to, must

N

nagen to gnaw, nibble
nähren to nourish; suckle
naschen to snack, nibble, nosh
necken to tease
nehmen C / S to take
nennen S to name, call
nicken to nod, doze
nützen to use; be useful

O

öffnen to open
operieren to operate (med.)
opfern to sacrifice
ordnen to organize, put in order

German Verb Conjugator

P

pachten to lease, rent
packen to pack; grab
passen to fit, be suitable
passieren to happen
pfeifen S to whistle
pflanzen to plant
plagen to plague, annoy
preisen to praise, commend
putzen to clean, groom

Q

quälen to torture, torment
qualmen to give off smoke
quellen S to gush, spring from
quetschen to squeeze, crush
quietschen to squeak, squeal

R

rächen to avenge
Rad fahren to ride a bike (VP)
raten to advise, guess
rauchen to smoke
räumen to clear away, evacuate
rauschen to rustle, murmur
rechnen to calculate, reckon
reißen S to tear, rip
reiten S to ride (horse)
rennen S to run
reichen to reach; pass
reisen to travel, journey
reinigen to clean, refine
reizen to excite, charm
richten to set right, adjust
riechen S to smell
ringen to struggle, wrestle
rollen to roll
rösten to roast
rücken to move, bring nearer
rufen S to call
ruhen to rest
rühren to stir, touch
rüsten to arm

S

sagen to say, tell
saufen S to drink to excess
saugen to suck, absorb
Staub saugen to vacuum (VP)
schaden to damage, hurt
schaffen S to create
schaffen to do, make, accomplish
schalten to switch, shift (gears)
schätzen to value, estimate
schauen to see, look
scheiden S to separate, divide
s. scheiden lassen S to divorce
scheinen S to shine, seem
scherzen to joke, kid
schicken to send
schieben S to push, shove
schießen S to shoot
schlachten to slaughter, butcher
schlafen C / S to sleep
schlagen S to hit, beat
schleichen S to sneak, creep
schleifen S to grind, polish
schließen to close; conclude
schmecken to taste
schmeißen S to throw, toss
schmelzen S to melt
schmerzen to hurt, smart
schmieren to grease; bribe
schneiden S to cut, slice
schneien to snow
schreiben S to write
schreien S to scream, yell
schreiten S to step, stride
schweben to soar, hover, float
schweigen S to be silent
schwimmen S to swim
schwitzen to sweat
schwören to swear
segnen to bless
sehen C / S to see
sein S to be
senden to send, broadcast
s. setzen to sit down
seufzen to sigh
sieden to boil, simmer
siegen to conquer, triumph
singen S to sing
sinken S to sink
sitzen S to sit
sollen M should, ought to, supposed to
spalten to split, divide
sparen to save
spazieren to stroll, walk
spielen to play
spinnen to spin; be nuts
sprechen S to speak, talk
springen S to jump
spritzen to spray, squirt
sprühen to spray; sparkle
spucken to spit
spülen to rinse, flush
spüren to feel, detect
statt|finden S to take place, happen
Staub saugen to vacuum (VP)
staunen to be amazed
stechen C / S to stab, sting, prick
stecken to set, be located
stehen to stand
stehlen to steal
steigen to climb, rise
stinken to stink
stöhnen to groan, moan
stopfen to stuff, cram
stören to disturb, upset
stoßen to push, bump
strahlen to beam, radiate
streben to strive
strecken to stretch, extend
streichen to strike, cancel; paint
streiten to quarrel, argue
stricken to knit
studieren to study (univ)
stürzen to plunge, fall, crash
suchen to look for, seek

T

tanken to get gas/petrol, refuel
tanzen to dance
taugen to be of use/value
toben to storm, rave
töten to kill
tragen C/S to wear, carry
trauen to trust, believe in; marry
träumen to dream
treffen C / S to meet, hit
treiben S to drive, propel
treten C / S to step, walk
trinken S to drink
trocknen to dry
tropfen to drip, drop
tun S to do, make, put

U

üben to exercise, practice
überraschen to surprise
überwinden S to overcome
umstellen to change over, shift
unterbrechen S to interrupt
s. unterhalten S to converse, entertain oneself

V

verachten to despise
verderben S to ruin, spoil
verdienen to earn, deserve
vereinigen to unite
verführen to seduce
vergessen S to forget
vergewaltigen to rape
s. verhalten S to behave, act
verhandeln to negotiate
verkaufen to sell
verkehren to trade, traffic; frequent
verklagen to complain, sue
verkommen S to decay, go bad
s. verlieben to fall in love
verlieren S to lose
vermehren to increase
vernichten to annihilate, exterminate
verraten S to betray
versagen to fail
verschlafen C / S to oversleep
verstehen S to understand
versuchen to attempt, try
vertreten to represent, stand in for
verwalten to administer, manage
verwechseln to confuse, mix up
verweigern to refuse
verweilen to linger, while away
verzeihen S to pardon, forgive
vor|kommen S to occur, happen
vor|stellen to introduce, present
s. vor|stellen to imagine

W

wachen to be awake; keep watch
wachsen C / S to grow
wagen to dare
wählen to choose, vote
währen to last, hold out
wälzen to roll
wandern to hike, wander
waschen C / S to wash
wechseln to change, exchange
wecken to wake, rouse
wehren to restrain; prevent
s. wehren to defend oneself
weichen to yield
weihen to consecrate, devote
weinen to cry, weep
wenden to turn
werben to recruit, court, woo, advertise
werden S to become
werfen C / S to throw
wetzen to sharpen, grind
widmen to dedicate, devote
wiederholen to repeat
wiegen S to weigh
wissen S to know
wohnen to reside, live
wollen M to want (to)
wünschen to wish, desire
würzen to season, spice

Z

zahlen to pay
zählen to count
zähmen to tame
zapfen to tap (beer)
zaubern to do magic, enchant
zeichnen to draw, sign
zeigen to show, indicate
zelten to camp
zerschlagen C/S to shatter, smash
zerstören to destroy
ziehen S to pull, draw
zielen to aim, target
zitieren to cite, quote
zittern to shake, tremble
zögern to hesitate
züchten to breed, culivate
zünden to ignite
zurück|nehmen C/S to take back
zwingen S to force, compel
Related Verb Pages

German Verb Conjugator
Ablaut Classes (strong verbs)
Modal Verbs
Regular Verbs
Strong (Irregular)
German Verbs
Top 20 Ger. Verbs
Top 50 Ger. Words
Verb Prefixes

 

SYMBOL KEY: C = Stem-changing verb (in pres. tense), D = Dative verb, M = Modal verb, .s = sich Reflexive verb, S = Strong verb (irregular verb), an|fangen = Verb with separable prefix, VP = Verb-Prefix Spelling

 

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Adjectives

adj

I saw a man-eating alligator.
We are describing the alligator. What type of alligator is it? It is one that eats men (or people).

I saw a man eating alligator.
This sentence without the hyphen sounds like a man is eating an alligator.
(man is the subject, eating is the verb, alligator is the object or thing that is being eaten).

As you can see, the hyphen (or lack of it) makes a big difference in the meaning of the sentence.

Before we explain in more detail why we put that hyphen between those two words in the first sentence, we need to do a quick review of Adjectives.

What is an adjective?

An adjective is a word that describes something.

A red car (red is an adjective because it describes the car. How is the car? Red)

A big book (big is an adjective because it describes the book. How is the book? Big)

See our other grammar notes about Adjectives in English. (LINK)

But sometimes we use more than one adjective to describe something.

Compound adjectives

A compound adjective is an adjective that contains two or more words.

In general we put a hyphen between two or more words (before a noun) when we want them to act as a single idea (adjective) that describes something.

  • I live in an English-speaking country.

English-speaking is an adjective (used to describe the country). We use a hyphen to connect the word English with speaking to show that it is one adjective (or one idea).

This adjective with two words joined by the hyphen is called a compound adjective.

Some more examples of compound adjectives are:

  • Our office is in a twenty-storey building.
  • I have just finished reading a 300-page book.
  • He is a well-known writer.

There are many types of Compound Adjectives. Here is a list of the most common types:

Compound Adjectives + Periods of Time

When he have compound adjectives using numbers + a time period, that word referring to a time period is in singular form and is joined to the number with a hyphen.

  • I work eight hours every day –> I work an eight-hour day
  • I’m going on vacation for three weeks –> I have a three-week vacation
  • There was a delay of 5 seconds –> There was a five-second delay

Notice how we normally write the number as a word, not in numerical form.

Adverbs and Compound Adjectives

Adverbs modify a verb.

  • She walks slowly.

How does she walk? Slowly. Slowly is an adverb that modifies (or describes) the verb.

Adverbs can also be used to modify an adjective.

  • It is very hot today. (Very is an adverb)
  • She is extremely intelligent. (Extremely is an adverb)

Notice how we do not put a hyphen between an adverb and an adjective (not even before a noun).

  • It is a very hot day.
  • She is an extremely intelligent girl.

Adverb + Past Participle

However when we have an Adverb + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

  • This is a brightly-lit room.
  • She is a well-known actress.
  • We live in a densely-populated city.

Noun + Past Participle

When we have a noun + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

  • We should start using wind-powered generators to cut costs.
  • I love eating sun-dried raisins.

Noun + Present Participle

When we have a noun + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

  • I bought some mouth-watering strawberries.
  • That was a record-breaking jump.

Noun + Adjective

When we have a noun + adjective, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

  • She is a world-famous singer.
  • This is a smoke-free restaurant.

Adjective + Noun

When we have an adjective + noun, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

  • It was a last-minute decision.
  • We watched the full-length version of the movie.

Adjective + Past Participle

When we have an adjective + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

  • That is an old-fashioned dress
  • Reptiles are cold-blooded creatures.

Adjective + Present Participle

When we have an adjective + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

  • She is a good-looking girl.
  • It left a long-lasting taste in my mouth.

Compound Adjectives with Proper Nouns

A proper noun is the name of something or someone (e.g. John, Susan Sanders).

Compound Adjectives made from Proper nouns don’t need a hyphen though must have capital letters.

  • I bought the James Jackson tickets for us.

James Jackson is a compound adjective describing the tickets (What type of tickets? James Jackson tickets). Since the adjective is a Proper noun, we don’t need a hyphen between the two names.

How do we know when to put a hyphen?

If you can use the word “and” between the two adjectives or words, then a hyphen isn’t necessary.

  • She has a big blue book.

(Big and Blue are adjectives)
Can we say: She has a big and blue book. (Yes, it is possible)

  • He is a world famous singer

Can we say: He is a world and famous singer. No, it doesn’t sound correct so we need a hyphen to join the words world and famous.

Also, look at the following:

  • It’s an old coal-mining town

Notice how we didn’t put a hyphen between the word old and coal. If we had have done that, we would have been referring to old coal, as in coal that is old. We want to emphasis that the town in old and not the coal.

Here we can say it is old and a coal-mining one.

See more about Adverbs vs Adjectives

La Famille

Famille

les membres de la famille

Pronunciación

los miembros de la familia

les parents los padres, los parientes
le père /pɛʀ/ el padre
la mère /mɛʀ/ la madre
le papa el papá
la mama la mamá
le frère /fʀɛʀ/ el hermano
la sœur /sœʀ/ la hermana
les grands-parents (m) /gʀɑ̃paʀɑ̃/ los abuelos
la grand-mère /gʀɑ̃mɛʀ/ la abuela
le grand-père /gʀɑ̃pɛʀ/ el abuelo
l’arrière-grand-père (m) el bisabuelo
l’arrière-grand-mère (f) la bisabuela
le fils /fis/ el hijo
la fille /fij/ la hija
le cousin /kuzɛ̃/ el primo
la cousine /kuzin/ la prima
le neveu /n(ə)vø/ el sobrino
la nièce la sobrina
l’oncle (m) /ɔ̃kl(ə)/ el tío
la tante /tɑ̃t/ la tía
les petits-enfants (m) /p(ə)tizɑ̃fɑ̃/ los nietos
le petit-fils /p(ə)tifis/ el nieto
la petite-fille /p(ə)titfij/ la nieta
le beau-père /bopɛʀ/ el suegro
la belle-mère /bɛlmɛʀ/ la suegra
le beau-frère /bofʀɛʀ/ el cuñado
la belle-soeur /bɛlsœʀ/ la cuñada
le frère jumeau el hermano gemelo
la sœur jumelle la hermana gemela
le fils adoptif el hijo adoptivo
la fille adoptive la hija adoptiva
le fiancé el novio, el prometido
la fiancée la novia, la prometida
le parrain el padrino
la marraine la madrina
le filleul el ahijado
la filleule la ahijada

Pour pratiquer:

http://lexiquefle.free.fr/famille0.swf

oficis i professions

Oficis
oficios y profesiones
Castellà Català
el afilador, la afiladora l’esmolador (m.), l’esmoladora
el albañil el paleta, la paleta
el anticuario, la anticuaria l’antiquari (m.), l’antiquària (f.)
el aparejador, la aparejadora l’aparellador, l’aparelladora
el arquitecto, la arquitecta l’arquitecte (m.), l’arquitecta (f.)
el autobusero, la autobusera el conductor (d’autobús), la conductora (d’autobús)
el barbero, la barbera el barber, la barbera
el bombero, la bombera el bomber, la bombera
el botones el grum, la grum
el cafetero, la cafetera el cafeter, la cafetera
el camarero, la camarera el cambrer, la cambrera
el camionero, la camionera el camioner, la camionera
el carpintero, la carpintera el fuster, la fustera
el cartero, la cartera el carter, la cartera
el cerrajero, la cerrajera el manyà, la manyà/el serraller, la serrallera
el cestero, la cestera el cisteller, la cistellera
el cocinero, la cocinera el cuiner, la cuinera
el conserje, la conserje el conserge, la conserge
el cristalero, la cristalera el vidrier, la vidriera
el decorador, la decoradora el decorador, la decoradora

It’s Raining cats and dogs

Catsdogs_02Meaning

Raining very heavily.

Origin

This is an interesting phrase in that, although there’s no definitive origin, there is a likely derivation. Before we get to that, let’s get some of the fanciful proposed derivations out of the way.

The phrase isn’t related to the well-known antipathy between dogs and cats, which is exemplified in the phrase ‘fight like cat and dog’. Nor is the phrase in any sense literal, that is, it doesn’t record an incident where cats and dogs fell from the sky. Small creatures, of the size of frogs or fish, do occasionally get carried skywards in freak weather. Impromptu involuntary flight must also happen to dogs or cats from time to time, but there’s no record of groups of them being scooped up in that way and causing this phrase to be coined. Not that we need to study English meteorological records for that – it’s plainly implausible.

One supposed origin is that the phrase derives from mythology. Dogs and wolves were attendants to Odin, the god of storms, and sailors associated them with rain. Witches, who often took the form of their familiars – cats, are supposed to have ridden the wind. Well, some evidence would be nice. There doesn’t appear to be any to support this notion.

It has also been suggested that cats and dogs were washed from roofs during heavy weather. This is a widely repeated tale. It got a new lease of life with the e-mail message “Life in the 1500s”, which began circulating on the Internet in 1999. Here’s the relevant part of that:

I’ll describe their houses a little. You’ve heard of thatch roofs, well that’s all they were. Thick straw, piled high, with no wood underneath. They were the only place for the little animals to get warm. So all the pets; dogs, cats and other small animals, mice, rats, bugs, all lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery so sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof. Thus the saying, “it’s raining cats and dogs.”

This is nonsense of course. It hardly needs debunking but, lest there be any doubt, let’s do that anyway. In order to believe this tale we would have to accept that dogs lived in thatched roofs, which, of course, they didn’t. Even accepting that bizarre idea, for dogs to have slipped off when it rained they would have needed to be sitting on the outside of the thatch – hardly the place an animal would head for as shelter in bad weather.

Another suggestion is that ‘raining cats and dogs’ comes from a version of the French word ‘catadoupe’, meaning waterfall. Again, no evidence. If the phrase were just ‘raining cats‘, or even if there also existed a French word ‘dogadoupe’, we might be going somewhere with this one. As there isn’t, let’s pass this by.

There’s a similar phrase originating from the North of England – ‘raining stair-rods‘. No one has gone to the effort of speculating that this is from mythic reports of stairs being carried into the air in storms and falling on gullible peasants. It’s just a rather expressive phrase giving a graphic impression of heavy rain – as is ‘raining cats and dogs’.

The much more probable source of ‘raining cats and dogs’ is the prosaic fact that, in the filthy streets of 17th/18th century England, heavy rain would occasionally carry along dead animals and other debris. The animals didn’t fall from the sky, but the sight of dead cats and dogs floating by in storms could well have caused the coining of this colourful phrase. Jonathan Swift described such an event in his satirical poem ‘A Description of a City Shower‘, first published in the 1710 collection of the Tatler magazine. The poem was a denunciation of contemporary London society and its meaning has been much debated. While the poem is metaphorical and doesn’t describe a specific flood, it seems that, in describing water-borne animal corpses, Swift was referring to an occurrence that his readers would have been well familiar with:

Now in contiguous Drops the Flood comes down,
Threat’ning with Deluge this devoted Town.

Now from all Parts the swelling Kennels flow,
And bear their Trophies with them as they go:
Filth of all Hues and Odours seem to tell
What Street they sail’d from, by their Sight and Smell.
They, as each Torrent drives, with rapid Force,
From Smithfield or St. Pulchre’s shape their Course,
And in huge Confluent join’d at Snow-Hill Ridge,
Fall from the Conduit, prone to Holbourn-Bridge.
Sweeping from Butchers Stalls, Dung, Guts, and Blood,
Drown’d Puppies, stinking Sprats, all drench’d in Mud,
Dead Cats and Turnip-Tops come tumbling down the Flood.

We do know that the phrase was in use in a modified form in 1653, when Richard Brome’s comedy The City Wit or The Woman Wears the Breeches referred to stormy weather with the line:

“It shall raine… Dogs and Polecats”.

Polecats aren’t cats as such but the jump between them in linguistic rather than veterinary terms isn’t large and it seems clear that Broome’s version was essentially the same phrase. The first appearance of the currently used version is in Jonathan Swift’s A Complete Collection of Polite and Ingenious Conversation in 1738:

“I know Sir John will go, though he was sure it would rain cats and dogs”.

The fact that Swift had alluded to the streets flowing with dead cats and dogs some years earlier and now used ‘rain cats and dogs’ explicitly is good evidence that poor sanitation was the source of the phrase as we now use it.

Lemon Tree

lemon-tree

Aprende Inglés con esta canción

  1. Leer la letra
  2. Escuchar la música
  3. Intentar cantarla

FOOLS GARDEN
(Lemon Tree)

I’m sitting here in the boring room
It’s just another rainy Sunday afternoon
I’m wasting my time
I got nothing to do
I’m hanging around
I’m waiting for you
But nothing ever happens and I wonder

I’m driving around in my car
I’m driving too fast
I’m driving too far
I’d like to change my point of view
I feel so lonely
I’m waiting for you
But nothing ever happens and I wonder

I wonder how
I wonder why
Yesterday you told me ’bout the blue blue sky
And all that I can see is just a yellow lemon-tree
I’m turning my head up and down
I’m turning turning turning turning turning around
And all that I can see is just another lemon-tree

I’m sitting here
I miss the power
I’d like to go out taking a shower
But there’s a heavy cloud inside my head
I feel so tired
Put myself into bed
While nothing ever happens and I wonder

Isolation is not good for me
Isolation I don’t want to sit on the lemon-tree

I’m steppin’ around in the desert of joy
Baby anyhow I’ll get another toy
And everything will happen and you wonder

I wonder how
I wonder why
Yesterday you told me ’bout the blue blue sky
And all that I can see is just another lemon-tree
I’m turning my head up and down
I’m turning turning turning turning turning around
And all that I can see is just a yellow lemon-tree
And I wonder, wonder

I wonder how
I wonder why
Yesterday you told me ’bout the blue blue sky
And all that I can see, and all that I can see, and all that I can see
Is just a yellow lemon-tree

take off, put on, or run into

Try these exercises to see if you understand: take off, put on, or run into

1. She ________ the coat ________ before she went outside.
2. They ____ __ a new opera, that was very successful.
3. Luke was driving too fast and he ____ ___ a tree.
4. Have you ____ ___ Frank lately?
5. Did you ____ it ___ the table?
7. I need to ______ some time _____ work, while my grandmother is visiting.
8. Please _____ ____ your shoes before coming in.
9. I _____ the money ____ the table when no one was looking.
10. Our plane _____ ___ three hours late because of a mechanical problem.

Rewrite these sentences using the correct phrasal verb. 
1. The plane is leaving the ground.
2. I unexpectedly saw my cousin at the football game.
3. You almost hit a light post when you were driving the car too fast.
4. My mother attached her name-tag on her shirt before the meeting.
5. I removed my shirt before I got in the shower.
6. After my shower I dressed in a new shirt.

Put the object in parentheses in the correct place: 
1. She put on (her coat, the rack)
2. I took off (my shoes)
3. I took off (it)
4. Paul ran into (a tree)
5. Luke ran into (her, at the grocery store)

Irregular Verbs

irregular verbs list

Infinitive

Past Simple

Past Participle

Meaning

 
arise arose arisen surgir
awake awoke/awaked awoken/awaked despertar
be was, were been ser, estar
bear bore borne llevar, aguantar
beat beat beaten batir, golpear
become became become hacerse, ponerse
beget begot/begat begotten engendrar
begin began begun comenzar
bend bent bent torcer
beseech besought/beseeched besought/beseeched suplicar
bet bet/betted bet/betted apostar
bid bade/bid bidden/bid ofrecer
bind bound bound atar, amarrar
bite bit bitten morder, picar
bleed bled bled sangrar
blow blew blown soplar
break broke broken romper
breed bred bred criar
bring brought brought traer, llevar
build built built construir
burn burned/burnt (Brit) burned/burnt (Brit) quemar
burst burst burst reventar(se), romper(se)
buy bought bought comprar
can could poder
cast cast cast echar, lanzar
catch caught caught coger, agarrar
chide chided/chid chided/chidden reprender
choose chose chosen elegir, escoger
cleave (split) cleft/clove cleft/cloven partir, hender
cleave (attach) cleaved cleaved adherirse, aferrarse
cling clung clung pegarse, agarrarse
come came come venir, llegar
cost cost/costed cost/costed costar, valer
creep crept crept arrastrarse
cut cut cut cortar
dare dared/durst (arch.) dared atreverse
deal dealt dealt tramitar, operar
dig dug dug cavar, excavar
dive dived/dove (US) dived tirarse, sumergirse
do did done hacer
draw drew drawn tirar, sacar
dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt soñar
drink drank drunk beber, tomar
drive drove driven conducir, manejar
dwell dwelt/dwelled dwelt/dwelled morar, vivir
eat ate eaten comer
fall fell fallen caer(se)
feed fed fed avivar, alimentar
feel felt felt sentir
fight fought fought luchar, pelear
find found found encontrar
flee fled fled huir
fling flung flung lanzar, arrojar
fly flew flown volar
forbid forbade forbidden prohibir
forget forgot forgotten olvidar
forsake forsook forsaken abandonar
freeze froze frozen helar
get got got/gotten (US) conseguir
gild gilded gilded/gilt dorar
gird girded/girt girded/girt ceñir de, rodear de
give gave given dar
go went gone ir(se)
grind ground ground moler, picar
grow grew grown crecer
hang hung/hanged (Jur) hung/hanged (Jur) colgar
have had had tener
hear heard heard oír
heave heaved/hove (Naut) heaved/hove (Naut) tirar, empujar
hew hewed hewn/hewed (US) cortar, tallar
hide hid hidden/hid esconder(se)
hit hit hit pegar, golpear
hold held held tener, abrazar
hurt hurt hurt lastimar, perjudicar
keep kept kept guardar
kneel knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled arrodillarse
know knew known saber
lade laded laden cargar de
lay laid laid poner, colocar
lead led led llevar, guiar
lean leaned/leant leaned/leant apoyarse
leap leaped/leapt leaped/leapt saltar
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt aprender
leave left left dejar, partir
lend lent lent prestar
let let let dejar
lie  lay lain tenderse, acostarse
lie  lied lied mentir
light lit/lighted lit/lighted encender, iluminar
lose lost lost perder
make made made hacer
may might poder
mean meant meant significar
meet met met encontrar(se), conocer
mow mowed mowed/mown segar, cortar
pay paid paid pagar
put put put poner, meter
quit quit/quitted quit/quitted renunciar, abandonar
read read read leer
rend rent rent rasgar, desgarrar
rid rid/ridded rid/ridded deshacerse de
ride rode ridden montar en, ir en
ring rang rung llamar, sonar
rise rose risen levantarse, elevarse
run ran run correr
saw sawed sawed/sawn serrar
say said said decir
see saw seen ver
seek sought sought buscar
sell sold sold vender
send sent sent enviar
set set set poner
sew sewed sewed/sewn coser
shake shook shaken sacudir, mover
shave shaved shaved/shaven afeitar(se), rasurar(se)
shear sheared sheared/shorn esquilar
shed shed shed derramar
shine shone shone brillar
shine shone/shined shone/shined sacar brillo a
shoe shod/shoed shod/shoed herrar
shoot shot shot pegar un tiro a
show showed shown/showed mostrar
shrink shrank shrunk encoger(se)
shut shut shut cerrar
sing sang sung cantar
sink sank sunk hundir
sit sat sat sentarse
slay slew slain matar
sleep slept slept dormir
slide slid slid deslizarse
sling slung slung lanzar
slink slunk slunk zafarse
slit slit/slitted slit/slitted cortar, abrir
smell smelled/smelt smelled/smelt oler
smite smote smitten golpear
sow sowed sowed/sown sembrar
speak spoke spoken hablar
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded correr a toda prisa
spell spelt/spelled spelt/spelled deletrear
spend spent spent gastar
spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled derramar
spin spun/span spun hacer girar
spit spat spat escupir
spit  spitted spitted ensartar
split split split dividir
spoil spoiled/spoilt spoiled/spoilt arruinar
spread spread spread tender, desplegar
spring sprang sprung saltar
stand stood stood estar de pie
stave stove/staved stove/staved evitar, aplazar
steal stole stolen robar
stick stuck stuck pegar
sting stung stung picar
stink stank stunk apestar
strew strewed strewed/strewn esparcir
stride strode stridden andar a pasos largos
strike struck struck/stricken (rare) golpear, pegar
string strung strung ensartar, encordar
strive strove striven esforzarse
swear swore sworn jurar
sweep swept swept barrer
swell swelled swollen/swelled hincharse
swim swam swum nadar
swing swung swung balancearse, oscilar
take took taken tomar
teach taught taught enseñar
tear tore torn romper
tell told told decir
think thought thought pensar
thrive throve/thrived thriven/thrived prosperar
throw threw thrown echar
thrust thrust thrust empujar, clavar
tread trod trodden pisar
wake woke/waked woken/waked despertar(se)
wear wore worn llevar
weave wove/weaved woven/weaved tejer
weep wept wept llorar
win won won ganar
wind winded/wound winded/wound dejar sin aliento, ovillar
wring wrung wrung torcer
write wrote written escribir

Daily english

I’m calling in sick: We are going to learn how to tell someone that you can’t go because you are sick.

Vocabulary preview:

Quite ill: I’m very sick

The flu: It’s a virus or sickness, stronger than a cold, also called influenza.

Conversation:

Ill

  • Hi, i’m Borja, how may I help you?
  • Hi, Silvia here
  • Hi Silvia, how are you?
  • Actually, i’m feeling quite ill today
  • I’m sorry to hear that, what’s wrong?
  • I think i’m coming down with the flu. I have a headache, a sore throat, a runny nose, and i’m feeling slightly feverish
  • I see…. So you’re calling in sick?
  • Yes, I was hoping to take the day off to recover.
  • Ok! Then, try and get some rest…

Vocabulary review:

Headache: My head hurts, I have a sore head. If you Prerink too much or you have a cold, you have a headache.

Sore throat: My throat is hurting (sore means it hurts). Maybe you are a dressmaker and your arm hurts, so you can say, I have a sore arm, a sore neck, etc.

Runny nose: Doesn’t mean your nose is running, it means a lot of water is coming out of your nose.

Example:

How dirty? John’s weeping and wiping his runny nose on his sleeve.

I’ve been sick with it for about 2 weeks…, first week yucky and runny nose, but it got worse in the second week.

Slightly feverish: It’s a feeling of your body being very hot or feeling like having a fever.

Recover: To get better from sickness (in context with sickness).

Phrases: “I’m coming down with” means starting to get sick, i’m begining to feel sick.

“Calling in sick” means you inform you can’t go to work because you’re sick.

My throat really hurts, I think i’m coming down with cold.
You have a runny nose, are you coming down with the flu?

I’m not feeling well, I think i’m coming down with something

Common expressions:

I feel faint/dizzy

I have an earache

I’m sneezing

I feel full/congested. You can use full if you had a prettty nice meal but also if you feel congested.

I have a problem with my tooth, I have a cavity (a hole).

I have a fever.

I was choping vegetables and I cut myself by accident, I’m bleeding.

If you hurt yourself and later on you get a mark, well, that’s a bruise. You can get a bruise anywhere (on your arm, etc.)

If you ate too much and you feel like a baloon, then you feel bloated. Example: Everytime I eat lentils they make me bloated.

cramps

I have cramps (If you’re a woman, when you have your period or menstrual cycle, you have pain, that’s called cramps).

If you have a cold, you cough (pronunciation goes like “cof”).

Hey, you have hiccups! (hipo).

If you drink too quickly, you burp (eructar)

Farting-guyYou’re farting, that’s disgusting!

Depending on what you’re eating, you could get some diarrhea. I’m watering out the bump, I have diarrhea. The opposite is constipation, you want to go to the toilet but you can’t.

-Oh, I have a headache!

-Hey, just take an aspirin

-Do you have hiccups? Drink water upside down!

-If you’re bleeding, but a bandaid on.

More vocabulary:

  • clinic
  • co-payment
  • doctor’s office
  • examination room
  • health insurance
  • Hospital
  • medical condition
  • medical exam
  • medical history
  • medicine
  • nurse
  • patient
  • prescription
  • side effects
  • symptoms
  • consult a doctor
  • get a shot
  • make an appointment
  • take your temperature

 

 

 

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